Wood Bridges and Decking for Model Trains
O Scale Trackside Structures
Oil Refinery Structures 1
View more Oil Refinery Structures on page 'Refinery Structures 2' - Refinery Structures 2
The Oil Refinery structures are our most popular product line to date. The photos above show demonstration complexes, customer orders and layouts.
The typical oil/petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant with many different structures designed to receive crude oil , processes and refine it into petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically very large complexes with extensive piping running throughout, connecting the various chemical processing units. To model a complete refinery would take up a lot of space on a layout. So Model Structures has designed various stand alone structures that can be purchased separately. This way you can choose and fit the structures you like for your layout. While all standard product is designed for underground piping Model Structures will be happy to design for an additional cost the necessary above ground piping using our pipe stands to connect all purchased product. If you prefer we will also design and build complete refinery complexes based on your instructions.
The Model Structures Oil Refinery consists of the following custom built structures:
- Various sized Storage Tanks with or w/o a Pump House
- Desalting Tank
- Crude Oil Furnace
- Three different Distillation Towers
- Condensers (to be designed)
- Alkylation Unit
- Piping Complex
- Flare Tower
- High Pressure Spherical Tanks
- Vertical Storage Tanks
- Elevated Storage Tanks
- Pipe Support Columns
- Hydrocracking Unit
- Floating Top Storage Tank
- Three Unit Horizontal Storage Tank Farm with Platform
- Tanker Car Fuel Loading Platform
- Condenser/Reflux Drum Rack (to be added soon)
- Filter Bank (to be added soon)
To aid in the selection of structures for your refinery feel free to open the link to the PDF file “How Oil Refineries are Set Up” (Updated) which gives basic in formation on how refineries operate and what structures are typically present.
How Oil Refineries Are Set Up
This is one of several different custom designs offered. These tanks can be used to store either crude oil ready for refining or finished product at the end of processing.
This tank farm consists of 4 tanks with a diameter of 4 1/2 inches and a height of 7 1/2 inches. There are 2 platforms on top of the tanks with caged ladders for each. Separate piping connects each tank to the pump house. At the pump house the input pipes are controlled by separate gate valves. There is a large output valve on the opposite side of the shed with an unglued elbow leading the pipe into the ground. This makes it easy to remove the piping to ground and install custom piping to a different location. The total footprint of the tank farm including the pump house is 13 x 18 inches. The tank farm is shipped in separate in seven pieces - the four tanks, two raised platforms with caged ladders and the pump house. Piping to the tanks will need to be glued to the tanks. The raised platforms will need to be glued to the top of the tanks. The base is not included in the kit. The display model was constructed from hardboard, painted with a textured gray (granite) paint then overlayed with gray ballast.
Standard color scheme is light gray top and a dark gray bottom. Other color schemes are available. Custom modifications are also available (see below) - just contact us!
The refinery’s first job is to remove water and salt from the crude oil. These contaminants are of no use to the refinery. Raw crude oil is pumped from storage tanks to the desalting tank where the process takes place. Salt is dissolved in the water in the crude oil, not in the crude oil itself and since water does not mix with crude oil the process is fairly simple to perform. Model Structures Desalting tank is 9 inches long and 2 ½ inches in diameter. There is a single inlet pipe for crude oil and a duel outlet piping system for desalted crude to use as feedstock for the crude oil furnace. A smaller pipe exiting the bottom of the tank carries waste water (brine) to be disposed of.
The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation. An Atmospheric distillation tower distills crude oil into fractions. The collected liquid fractions may either pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks or go to other areas for further chemical processing. There are usually heavy residue left over after atmospheric distillation. These residues are sent to a Vacuum distillation tower which further distills the 'residual bottoms' for more product. Smaller Distillation towers are also located after hydrocracking or treatment units to further refine product before being sent on to storage. Model Structures offers three distillation tower models. Please note that pipe diameters have changed. All towers now use the larger 1/4 OD piping in all locations. The largest is the Vacuum Distillation tower standing 19” tall with a 2” diameter. The overall footprint due to the base is about 4 x 4 “. The tower has one outlet pipe at the top which collects the lightest product from the distillation process and two pipes for intermediate weight product. In the middle is an Atmospheric tower measuring 16 ½ inches tall and 1 ½ diameter with two outlet pipes. The smallest tower measures 14 inches x 1 ¼ inch diameter and has one outlet pipe. All towers have one inlet pipe at ground level.The standard design has all piping ending at the bottom of the tower.
Custom routing of piping is available for multiple product purchase.
An alternate method to squeeze even more out of crude oil after initial distillation is the use of Alkylation (Alky) Units to combine olefins (propylene and butylene) from the Fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) with isobutane and a sulfuric acid catalyst. It’s mixed vigorously before the sulfuric acid is again removed. What’s left is pumped to distillation towers, where it’s separated into liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), mixed butanes and alkylate. Alkylate is a high-octane blending component used in lead-free premium gasoline.
The top tank has inlet and outlet piping plus a smaller diameter pipe that connects to the lower tank. The lower tank also has an inlet pipe. The inlet pipes are usually connected to an upstream cracking unit and a storage tank. The outlet piping would go to another distillation tower or to a mixing unit.
Aproximate footprint for the Alkylation unit including clearance for the piping is 9 inches x 7 inches x 11 inches (H).
Please see the OnLine Store for pricing.
The pipe transfer line has two levels of piping (4 rows of pipes on the top level and 3 rows of pipes on the lower level). All pipe rows are controlled with gate valves. At the back end the pipes are diverted to ground level while at the front all pipes are attached to ground level common pipe run. In the standard configuration this pipe run is diverted into the ground at both ends. Attached to the pipe stand is a maintenance platform allowing access to the top level and the control valves located there. The piping complex footprint is approximately 10 x 9 x 7(H) inches.
Spherical Storage Tanks are primarily used to house petroleum / chemical products stored under pressure such as Benzene, Ammonia, Liquid Propane, Liquid Oxygen or Nitrogen. Shown above is the O Scale double tank option. A single tank option is also available. Each O Scale tank measures 5 inches in diameter. The overall footprint for the double tank version is 19 inches wide x 9 inches deep (including stairs) with a 7 inch height. The single unit tank structure is about 10 inches wide. The tanks are available in different colors. Standard color for the tank complex is light gray with dark gray stairways. Other color options are dark gray, white or black with appropriate color stairways.